Células asesinas naturales con el receptor de antígeno quimérico (CAR-NK)

terapia emergente contra el cáncer

Autores/as

  • Adrián Vázquez Rodríguez Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
  • Jorge Flavio Mendoza-Rincón Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22490/24629448.5472

Palabras clave:

Inmunoterapia adoptiva, leucemias, tumores malignos, Terapia de Receptor Antígeno Quimérico, Células T, Terapia CAR-T, Células NK

Resumen

Una de las herramientas más novedosas en inmunoterapias adoptivas contra leucemias y tumores malignos es el uso del receptor de antígeno quimérico “CAR”. El receptor CAR ha sido ampliamente utilizada en células T (células CAR-T) potenciando su eficacia en el reconocimiento y eliminación de tumores, obteniéndose a la fecha terapias basadas en esta tecnología. No obstante, las células CAR-T llegan a repercutir negativamente en la salud del paciente, presentando el síndrome neurológico de efecto inmune asociado a células (ICANS) y el síndrome de lanzamiento de citocinas (SLC). Como consecuencia, el paciente necesita ser hospitalizado durante la terapia. Además, el coste de manufactura y terapia es elevado, siendo una tecnología limitada a un sector muy bajo de la población. En este trabajo, mencionamos el empleo de una terapia emergente de células asesinas naturales (NK) con el receptor CAR (CAR-NK), que cuentan con muchas ventajas por encima de las células CAR-T. Las células CAR-NK conservan su capacidad citotóxica en contra de tumores gracias a su acción dependiente de receptores activadores e inhibidores, por lo que el receptor CAR, solo estimula sus habilidades y persistencia. Sumado a esto, el coste de una terapia de células CAR-NK podría resultar redituable debido a la capacidad de las células CAR-NK de eliminar múltiples células tumorales sin generar daño colateral en el paciente. Aquí analizamos las características de los múltiples receptores CAR y los fenotipos de células NK que han sido utilizados durante múltiples ensayos (NK-92, células NK de sangre cordal y periférica, y células NK iPSC).

Biografía del autor/a

Adrián Vázquez Rodríguez , Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

MSc, PhD. Laboratorio 9, planta baja. Unidad de Investigación disciplinaria (UMIEZ). Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Ciudad de México. 

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Publicado

2021-12-23

Cómo citar

Vázquez Rodríguez , A. ., & Mendoza-Rincón, J. F. . (2021). Células asesinas naturales con el receptor de antígeno quimérico (CAR-NK): terapia emergente contra el cáncer. Nova, 19(37), 11 – 24. https://doi.org/10.22490/24629448.5472

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