Reacciones Internacionales ante la destrucción de patrimonio en los casos de Siria y Yemen
PDF

Palabras clave

PATRIMONIO
CONFLICTO
RELACIONES INTERNACIONALES
SIRIA
YEMEN
AGENDA INTERNACIONAL

Cómo citar

del Hoyo, E. (2020). Reacciones Internacionales ante la destrucción de patrimonio en los casos de Siria y Yemen. Análisis Jurídico - Político, 2(3), 169 - 204. https://doi.org/10.22490/26655489.3828

Resumen

La destrucción de patrimonio cultural está deviniendo una constante durante los conflictos armados, y los casos de Palmira y Sana’a son paradigmáticos de estas dinámicas. ¿Ha habido diferencias entre la problematización internacional de ambos? Teniendo en cuenta variables como el espacio que ocupan ambos estados en la estructura de poder internacional, los diferentes actores involucrados, el factor estado islámico y la vertiente identitaria del patrimonio cultural, esta investigación estudia su visibilización internacional mediante un análisis basado en las reacciones internacionales. El objetivo final es calibrar el ecosistema generado alrededor de cada caso de estudio. Para analizar los dos casos de estudio se confrontarán las diversas reacciones separadas por categorías. Estas han sido creadas a partir de los modelos propuestos por Heritage for Peace y Al Quntar y Daniels. El resultado final de la revisión constata una problematización diferenciada de ambos casos en la agenda pública internacional.

https://doi.org/10.22490/26655489.3828
PDF

Citas

Al-Derzi, Z. (2016). PressTV- International exhibition for Syria reconstruction launched in Damascus. Recuperado de: https://www.presstv.com/Detail/2016/09/07/483672/Rebuild-Syria-2016 [Consulta 31 de mayo de 2019].

Al-Maghafi, N. y Osborne, P. (2016). How Yemen's past is being erased, one air strike at a time. [online] Middle East Eye. Recuperado de: https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/how-yemens-past-being-erased-one-air-strike-time [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019 ].

Al Quntar, S. y Daniels, B. (2016). Responses to the Destruction of Syrian Cultural Heritage: A Critical Review of

Current Efforts. International Journal of Islamic Architecture, (2), 381-397.

Al-Sayani, M. (2018). The Challenges and Risks that Yemeni Cultural Heritage faces. Recuperado de:

http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CLT/movable/pdf/The_Challenges_and_Risk_Ye

men.pdf [Consulta20 9 de abril de 2019].

Álvarez-Ossorio, I. (2011). Las paradojas del islam político en Siria. Revista CIDOB d’Afers Internacionals, (93-94),

-178.

Álvarez, Osorio,I. (2015) La fractura suní-chií en Oriente Medio. Recuperado de: https://www.esglobal.org/lafractura-suni-chii-en-oriente-medio/ [Consulta 1 de abril de 2019].

Amos, J. (2015). Satellite image of IS destruction. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-34090536 [Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

Antiquities Coalition. (2015). Culture Under Threat Map Archives - Antiquities Coalition. Recuperado de:

https://theantiquitiescoalition.org/tag/culture-under-threat-map/ [Consulta 20 de mayo de 2019].

Arcwh.org. (2019). Arab Regional Centre for World Heritage. Recuperado de: http://arcwh.org/index.html [Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

Averty, C. (2015). Patrimoine de l’humanité : la liste des sites en péril s’allonge. [online] Le Monde. Recuperado de: https://www.lemonde.fr/livres/article/2015/09/11/patrimoine-de-l-humanite-la-liste-des-sites-en-peril-sallonge_4742556_3260.html [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

ARWA RIGHTS. (2019). Destruction of Heritage Sites — ARWA Rights. [online] Recuperado de:

http://arwarights.org/heritage [Consulta 5 de abril de 2019].

ARWA RIGHTS. (2016). Destruction of Heritage Sites — ARWA RIGHTS. Recuperado de: http://arwarights.org/heritage [Consulta 3 de abril de 2019].

Athar Regional Conservation Centre. (2015). “Protection of Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis” concludes.

Recuperado de: http://athar-centre.org/?p=5580 [Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

Athar Regional Conservation Centre. (2016). Awards for conservation projects in the Arab world. Recuperado de:

http://athar-centre.org/?p=5766 [Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

Azinseraj.com. (2016). POP-UP PALMYRA, Art in Response to the Destruction of the Past | Azin Seraj. Recuperado

de: http://www.azinseraj.com/1569/news/pop-up-palmyra-phoebe-a-hearst-museum-berkeley-ca/ [Consulta

de mayo de 2019].

Barnard, A. (2015). ISIS Speeds Up Destruction of Antiquities in Syria. [online] The New York Times. Recuperado de: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/25/world/isis-accelerates-destruction-of-antiquities-insyria.html?searchResultPosition=54 [Consulta 18 de junio de 2019].

Barnard, A y Saad (2015). Palmyra Temple Was Destroyed by ISIS, U.N. Confirms. [online] The New York Times.

Recuperado de: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/01/world/middleeast/isis-militants-severely-damagetemple-of-baal-in-palmyra.html?searchResultPosition=34 [Consulta 18 de junio de 2019].

BBC News (2014). Crusader castle has Syria war scars. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-26696113 [Consulta 15 Apr. 2019].

BBC News. (2015). Blasts hit mosques in Yemeni capital. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-33171366 [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

BBC News. (2015b). Inside Sanaa as fighting continues. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-middle-east-32247454/yemen-crisis-inside-sanaa-as-fighting-continues

[Consulta 11 de junio de 2019]. BBC News. (2015c). Islamic State 'blows up Palmyra arch'. [online] BBC News . Recuperado de: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-34440759 [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

BBC News. (2015d). Syria conflict: Salvaging Palmyra artefacts. [online] BBC News . Recuperado de: https

https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-middle-east-34409912/syria-conflict-salvaging-palmyraartefacts[Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

BBC News. (2015e). UN confirms Palmyra temple destroyed. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-34111092 [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

BBC News. (2015f). Unesco condemns Yemen heritage site 'air strike'. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-33108113 [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

BBC News. (2016). 'Deadly gas attack' hits near Palmyra. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-38295309 [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

BBC News. (2016b). Destroyed by IS, recreated with 3D technology. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/av/uk-36080509/destroyed-by-is-recreated-with-3d-technology [Consulta 17 de

junio de 2019].

BBC News. (2016c). IS retakes Syrian city of Palmyra. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-38280283 [Consulta 17 de junio de 2019].

BBC News. (2016d). Recapture of Palmyra tightens noose on IS. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-35909603 [Consulta 17 de junio de 2019].

Blue Shield (2015). Blue Shield Statement on Yemen - International Council on Monuments and Sites. Recuperado de: https://www.icomos.org/en/newsletters-archives/178-english-categories/news/3563-blue-statement-onyemen [Consulta 5 de junio de 2019].

Blue Shield (2016). Palmyra and the wider historic environment in Syria. Recuperado de:

https://www.ifla.org/files/assets/hq/topics/cultural-heritage/documents/blue-shield-statement-on-palmyra.pdf

[Consulta 31 de mayo de 2019].

Brown, M. (2016). Palmyra's Arch of Triumph recreated in Trafalgar Square. [online] The Guardian. Recuperado de: https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2016/apr/19/palmyras-triumphal-arch-recreated-in-trafalgar-square

[Consulta 22 de mayo de 2019].

Cheikhmous, A. (2015) The Palmyra: Heritage Adrift. ASOR Cultural Heritage Initiatives, Special Reports, June

Columbia GSAPP (2015). Culture and Heritage After Palmyra, Interdisciplinary Discussion. [video] Recuperado de:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kLm3Uf6Xtvc [Consulta 22 de mayo de 2019].

Comscore (2019). Rankings. Recuperado de: https://www.comscore.com/Insights/Rankings [Consulta 10 de junio de 2019].

Connell, J., Cuneo, A., Danti, M., Gabriel, M., Penacho, S. (2015) Special Report on the Importance of Palmyra.

ASOR Cultural Heritage Initiatives, Special Reports, June 2015.

Connell, J., Cuneo, A., Danti, M., Gabriel, M., Penacho, S. (2015) The Recapture of Palmyra. ASOR Cultural

Heritage Initiatives, Special Reports, September 2015.

Connell, J., Cuneo, A., Danti, M., Gabriel, M., Penacho, S. (2015) Update on the Situation in Palmyra. ASOR Cultural

Heritage Initiatives, Special Reports, September 2015.

Craig, I. (2015). U.S. and Saudi Bombs Target Yemen’s Ancient Heritage. [online] The Intercept. Recuperado de:

https://theintercept.com/2015/11/16/u-s-and-saudi-bombs-target-yemens-ancient-heritage/ [Consulta 5 de

abril de 2019].

Cunliffe, E., Curini, L. (2018). ISIS and heritage destruction: a sentiment analysis. Antiquity, 92(364), 1094-1111.

Cunliffe, E., Perini, S. (2014). Towards a protection of the Syrian cultural heritage: a summary of the national and

international responses (March 2011-March 2014) Girona: Heritage for peace.

Danti, M. D. et al. (2015) ASOR Cultural Heritage Initiatives: Planning for Safeguarding Heritage Sites in Syria and

Iraq Heritage Timeline. Disponible enhttp://www.asor.org/chi[Consulta 20 de mayo de 2019].

Danti, M. et al. (2015 b) ASOR Cultural Heritage Initiatives: Special Report on the Importance of Palmyra.

Disponible enhttp://www.asor.org/chi[Consulta 20 de mayo de 2019].

de Pedro, N. y Soler Lecha, E. (2012). CIDOB - Quién quiere qué en Siria. Recuperado de:

https://www.cidob.org/publicaciones/serie_de_publicacion/opinion/mediterraneo_y_oriente_medio/quien_qu

iere_que_en_siria[Consulta 3 de abril de 2019].

DGAM (2014) Initial Damages Assessment for Syrian Cultural Heritage During the Crises Mid of Syria. Recuperado de: http://www.dgam.gov.sy/[Consulta 19 de mayo de 2019].

DGAM (2015) State Party Report on The State of Conservation of The Syrian Cultural Heritage Sites. Recuperado de: http://www.dgam.gov.sy/[Consulta 19 de mayo de 2019].

DGAM (2017) State Party Report on The State of Conservation of The Syrian Cultural Heritage Sites. Recuperado de: http://www.dgam.gov.sy/[Consulta 19 de mayo de 2019].

DGAM (2016). Continuing the Documentation of Palmyra by using 3D techniques. Recuperado de:

http://www.dgam.gov.sy/index.php?d=314&id=1989 [Consulta 19 de mayo de 2019].

DGAM (2016 b). Exhibition of Rising from The Destruction In Rome-Italy. Recuperado de:

http://www.dgam.gov.sy/index.php?d=314&id=2062 [Consulta 22 de mayo de 2019].

DGAM (2016 c). Lecture of Director-General in the Aga Khan Museum in Toronto-Canada. Recuperado de:

http://www.dgam.gov.sy/index.php?d=314&id=2068 [Consulta 31 de mayo de 2019].

DGAM (2016 d). Statement: The Road to Resurrecting Palmyra. Recuperado de:

http://www.dgam.gov.sy/index.php?d=314&id=1968 [Consulta 31 de mayo de 2019].

Elvin, F. (2016). Des photos inédites des saccages de l’EI à Palmyre. [online] Le Monde. Recuperado de:

https://www.lemonde.fr/architecture/article/2016/04/08/des-photos-exclusives-des-saccages-de-l-ei-apalmyre_4898879_1809550.html [Consulta 20 de junio de 2019].

Elvin, F. (2016b). Faut-il reconstruire Palmyre ?. [online] Le Monde. Recuperado de:

https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2016/05/26/faut-il-reconstruire-palmyre_4926958_3232.html [Consulta

de junio de 2019].

Elvin, F. (2016c). « 80 % de l’architecture » du site de Palmyre n’auraient pas été touchés par l’Etat islamique.

[online] Le Monde. Recuperado de: https://www.lemonde.fr/proche-orient/article/2016/03/29/80-de-larchitecture-du-site-de-palmyre-n-aurait-pas-ete-touchee-par-l-etat-islamique_4891416_3218.html [Consulta

de junio de 2019].

Feliu, L. (2016). Estructura de poder y desafíos populares. La respuesta del régimen Marroquí al Movimimento 20 de Febrero. Revista de Estudios Políticos, ( 174), 195-223.

France ICOMOS Agenda. (2015). De Reims à Palmyre : le patrimoine en temps de guerre. Recuperado de:

http://france.icomos.org/fr_FR/S-impliquer/Rendez-vous-et-actualites/Agenda/De-Reims-a-Palmyre-lepatrimoine-en-temps-de-guerre [Consulta 23 de mayo de 2019].

Galpin, R, (2016). Army 'steps up offensive from Palmyra. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-middle-east-35913532/syria-civil-war-army-steps-up-offensive-frompalmyra [Consulta 16 junio de 2019]

Gladstone, R. (2015). Antiquities Still at Risk, Experts Warn. [online] The New York Times. Recuperado de:

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/25/world/middleeast/antiquities-still-at-risk-expertswarn.html?searchResultPosition=68 [Consulta 16 de junio de 2019].

Gladstone, R. (2015b). Explosion Destroys Ancient Cultural Heritage Site in Yemen Capital. [online]

The New York Times. Recuperado de: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/13/world/middleeast/yemen-sana-explosionhouthis-saudi-arabia.html [Consulta 16 de junio de 2019].

Gladstone, R. (2015c). ISIS Destroys More Artifacts in Syria and Iraq. [online] The New York Times. Recuperado de: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/04/world/middleeast/isis-destroys-artifacts-palmyra-syriairaq.html?searchResultPosition=48 [Consulta 16 de junio de 2019].

Graham-Harrison, E. (2015). From Parthenon to Palmyra: a history of cultural destruction. [online] The Guardian..

Recuperado de: https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2015/sep/03/palmyra-isis-history-cultural-destructionparthenon [Consulta 18 de junio de 2019].

Grandpalais. (2016). Eternal sites. Recuperado de: https://www.grandpalais.fr/en/event/eternal-sites [Consulta 22 de mayo de 2019].

Harding, L. (2016). Palmyra hosts Russian concert after recapture by Syrian forces. [online] The Guardian.

Recuperado de: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/may/05/palmyra-amphitheatre-hosts-russianconcert-after-recapture-by-syrian-forces [Consulta 27 de mayo de 2019].

Hassan, H. (2015). Religious teaching that drives Isis to threaten the ancient ruins of Palmyra. [online] The Guardian. Recuperado de: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/may/24/palmyra-syria-isis-destruction-oftreasures-feared [Consulta 18 de junio de 2019].

Heritage for peace (2014). Damage to Syria’s Heritage 04 April 2014. Heritage For Peace Reports, April 2014.

Heritage For Peace. (2019). Previous Damage Newsletters | Heritage for Peace. Recuperado de:

http://www.heritageforpeace.org/syria-culture-and-heritage/damage-to-cultural-heritage/previous-damagenewsletters/ [Consulta 20 de mayo de 2019].

Ignatius, D. (2015). Why should we care about preserving the past- or protecting our future?. [online] Washington Post. Recuperado de: https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/our-stake-in-the-future----and-thepast/2015/09/01/2b68e7c4-50e7-11e5-933e-7d06c647a395_story.html?utm_term=.00458119012b [Consulta

de junio de 2019].

Izquierdo, Brichs F. (Ed.). (2009). Poder y regímenes en el mundo árabe contemporáneo. Barcelona: Fundació

CIDOB.

Jackman Humanities Institute. (2016). Remembering Palmyra; The Devastation Of Syria’s Cultural Heritage by ISIS. Recuperado de: https://humanities.utoronto.ca/event_details/id=2013 [Consulta 23 de mayo de 2019].

Joignot, F. (2016). Au Yémen, le patrimoine martyrisé. [online] Le Monde. Recuperado de:

https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2016/09/01/au-yemen-le-patrimoine-martyrise_4990930_3232.html

[Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

Katz, B. (2018). Ancient City of Palmyra, Gravely Damaged by ISIS, May Reopen Next Year. Recuperado de:

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/ancient-city-palmyra-gravely-damaged-isis-may-reopen-nextyear-1-180970160/ [Consulta 15 abril de 2019].

Khalidi, L. (2015). Yemeni Heritage, Saudi Vandalism. [online] The New York Times. Recuperado de:

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/27/opinion/yemeni-heritage-saudivandalism.html?searchResultPosition=2 [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

Khalidi (2015b). Opinion | Destroying Cultural Heritage. [online] The New York Times. Recuperado de:

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/22/opinion/destroying-cultural-heritage.html?searchResultPosition=8

[[Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

Khalidi, L. (2017). The Destruction of Yemen and Its Cultural Heritage. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 49(04), 735-738.

Kila, J. (2016). Heritage Destruction in the Mediterranean Region. IEMed. Mediterranean Yearbook.

Kuwait News Agency (2015). Iran, Syria sign security cooperation MoU. Recuperado de:

https://www.kuna.net.kw/ArticleDetails.aspx?id=2447891&language=en# [Consulta 3 de junio de 2019].

Lababidi, R., Qassar, H. (2016). Did They Really Forget How to Do It?: Iraq, Syria, and the International Response to Protect a Shared Heritage. Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies 4(4), 341-

La Biennale di Venezia. (2016). Biennale Architettura 2016|Reporting from the front. Recuperado de:

https://www.labiennale.org/en/architecture/2016 [[Consulta 10 de junio de 2019].

Leckie, L., Cunliffe, E. and Varoutsikos, B. (2017). Towards a protection of the Syrian cultural heritage: a summary

of the national and international responses volume IV. Girona: Heritage for peace.

Le Monde. (2015). Joyau de l’urbanisme islamique, le vieux Sanaa endommagé par un raid aérien. [online] Le Monde. Recuperado de: https://www.lemonde.fr/proche-orient/portfolio/2015/06/12/joyau-de-l-urbanisme-islamiquele-vieux-sanaa-endommage-par-un-raid-aerien_4653120_3218.html?xtmc=yemen_unesco&xtcr=13

[Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

Le Monde. (2015b). La perte de Palmyre, une catastrophe à la fois culturelle et humanitaire. [online] Le Monde.

Recuperado de: https://www.lemonde.fr/arts/article/2015/05/21/la-perte-de-palmyre-une-catastrophe-a-lafois-culturelle-et-humanitaire_4638189_1655012.html [Consulta 20 de junio de 2019].

Le Monde (2015c). La veille dille de Sana au Yemen, Patrimoine Mondial de l’humanité touchée par les

bombardements. [online] Le Monde. Recuperado de: https://www.lemonde.fr/culture/article/2015/06/13/lavieille-ville-de-sana-a-au-yemen-patrimoine-mondial-de-l-humanite-touchee-par-lesbombardements_4653608_3246.html [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

Le Monde. (2015d). Le martyre du Yémen, dans l’indifférence absolue. [online] Le Monde. Recuperado de:

https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2015/07/21/le-martyre-du-yemen-dans-l-indifferenceabsolue_4692281_3232.html?xtmc=yemen_unesco&xtcr=9 [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

Le Monde. (2015e). Le patrimoine du Yémen bombardé. [online] Le Monde. Recuperado de:

https://www.lemonde.fr/idees/article/2015/07/29/le-patrimoine-du-yemenbombarde_4702972_3232.html?xtmc=yemen_unesco&xtcr=8 [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

Le Monde (2015f). Vidéo. Bombardement du vieux Sanaa, cinq tués. [online] Le Monde. Recuperado de:

https://www.lemonde.fr/proche-orient/video/2015/06/12/bombardement-du-vieux-sanaa-cinqtues_4653260_3218.html?xtmc=yemen_unesco&xtcr=11 [Consulta 2 de junio de 2019].

Le Patrimonie Archéologique Syrien en Danger (2016). Absolute despair with UNESCO: An Open Letter.

Recuperado de: https://www.facebook.com/notes/le-patrimoine-arch%C3%A9ologique-syrien-en-danger

[Consulta 31 de mayo de 2019].

Loosley, E. (2015). I marvelled at the influence, art and wealth of Palmyra. Now I mourn it. [online] The Guardian.

Recuperado de: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/aug/30/palmyra-isis-syria-history-influence-mourn

[Consulta 18 de junio de 2019].

Merrick, J. (2015). Britain is signing up to the 1954 Hague Convention on protecting cultural sites. [online] The

Independent. Recuperado de: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/britain-to-sign-up-to1954-hague-convention-on-protecting-worlds-ancient-cultural-sites-10334107.html [Consulta 3 de junio de

.

Met Museum. (2016). Evening Lecture-Palmyra: Mirage in the Desert. Recuperado de:

https://www.metmuseum.org/events/programs/met-speaks/symposia/palmyra-evening [Consulta 23 de mayo

de 2019].

Middle East Eye. (2015). Saudi-led warplanes hit 'jewel' of Islamic culture in Sanaa. [online] Middle East Eye.

Recuperado de: https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/saudi-led-warplanes-hit-jewel-islamic-culture-sanaa

[Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

Middle East Eye. (2015b). Syrian official: World must move quickly to save Palmyra from IS advance. [online]

Middle East Eye. Recuperado de: https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/syrian-official-world-must-movequickly-save-palmyra-advance [ Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

Middle East Eye. (2016). IS netting up to $200m a year from illegal antiquities sales: Russia. [online] Middle East

Eye. Recuperado de: https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/netting-200m-year-illegal-antiquities-sales-russia

[Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

Mwatana (2018). The Degradation of History, Violations Committed by the Warring Parties against Yemen’s Cultural Property. Sanaa'a: Mwatana for Human Rights.

Noman, M. (2015). Are ancient buildings as important as human lives?. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-trending-33111424 [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

NYTimes.com - Video. (2015). At least six killed in Saudi-led strike on Sanaa's Old City. [online] The New York

Times. Recuperado de: https://www.nytimes.com/video/multimedia/100000003738007/at-least-six-killed-insaudi-led-strike-on-sanaas-old-city.html?searchResultPosition=1 [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

NYT Editorial Board (2016). Opinion | Cultural Destruction as a War Crime. [online] The New York Times

Recuperado de: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/08/opinion/cultural-destruction-as-a-warcrime.html?searchResultPosition=84 [Consulta 18 de junio de 2019].

Ortiz de Zárate, R. (2016). Abdelrabbuh Mansur al-Hadi, Presidente de la República (2012-2015, en rebeldía desde

. Recuperado de: https://www.cidob.org/biografias_lideres_politicos/asia/yemen/abdelrabbuh_mansur_al_hadi [Consulta 6 de

junio de 2019].

Passey, B. (2018). The Destruction of Cultural Heritage in the Yemen Conflict: Legal Implications and State

Responsibility. Brigham Young University Prelaw Review, 32(4).

Pauls, A. (2015). Yemen mosque attacks 'unprecedented'. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-middle-east-31980251/yemen-mosque-attacks-in-sanaa-unprecedented

[Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

Porter, L. (2016). Palmyra and propaganda: Assad's latest game. [online] Middle East Eye. Recuperado de:

https://www.middleeasteye.net/opinion/palmyra-and-propaganda-assads-latest-game [Consulta 23 de junio

de 2019].

Press Association (2016). British archaeologists should rebuild Palmyra, says Boris Johnson. [online] The Guardian. Recuperado de: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/27/british-archaeologists-should-help-rebuildpalmyra-says-boris-johnson [Consulta 18 de junio de 2019].

Prosecutor v. Kordić, Case No. IT-95-14/2-A, Appeal Judgment, Int’l Crim. Trib. for the Former Yugoslavia, (Dec.

, 2004), http://www.refworld.org/cases,ICTY,47fdfb53d.html

Qaddour, B. (2016). Syrian, Russian Artists Hold Exhibition in Moscow. [online] Syria Times. Recuperado de:

http://syriatimes.sy/index.php/culturt/27787-syrian-russian-artists-hold-exhibition-in-moscow [Consulta 22

de mayo de 2019].

Ramírez, N. (2012). La revolución siria: orígenes, actores y procesos. SOCIOLOGÍA (209), 239

Raworth, S. (2015). Palmyra archaeologist 'killed by IS. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-middle-east-33997755/palmyra-archaeologist-killed-by-is-militants

[Consulta 18 de junio de 2019].

Reinl, J. (2015). UN laments ‘extreme times’ as two Arab sites join World Heritage List. [online] Middle East Eye.

Recuperado de: https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/un-laments-extreme-times-two-arab-sites-join-worldheritage-list [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

Rodrigues, C. (2015). UNESCO sites in Yemen under threat. [online] Middle East Eye. Recuperado de:

https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/unesco-sites-yemen-under-threat [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

Rodrigues, C. (2015b). Violence ravaging Yemen’s heritage as UNESCO sites damaged. [online] Middle East Eye.

Recuperado de: https://www.middleeasteye.net/news/violence-ravaging-yemens-heritage-unesco-sites

[Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. (2003). Web Site of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Recuperado de: https://www.un.org/law/icc/index.htm [Consulta 5 de abril de 2019].

Rosen, K. (2015). ISIS Damages Temple of Baal in Palmyra. [online] The New York Times. Recuperado de:

https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/31/world/middleeast/isis-damages-a-temple-inpalmyra.html?searchResultPosition=6 [Consulta 18 de junio de 2019].

Sana'a Center For Strategic Studies. (2017). Publications | Sana'a Center For Strategic Studies. Disponigle en:

http://sanaacenter.org/publications [Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

Saunders, T. (2016). Remembering Khaled al-Asaad: the heroic archaeologist who died defending Palmyra from Isil. [online] The Telegraph. Recuperado de: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/tv/0/remembering-khaled-al-asaadheroic-archaeologist-died-defending/ [Consulta 22 de mayo de 2019].

Shaheen, K. (2015). Isis blows up Arch of Triumph in 2,000-year-old city of Palmyra. [online] The Guardian.

Recuperado de: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/oct/05/isis-blows-up-another-monument-in-2000-

year-old-city-of-palmyra [Consulta 18 de junio de 2019].

Shaheen, K. y Graham-Harrison, E. (2016). Palmyra will rise again. We have to send a message to terrorists. [online] The Guardian.. Recuperado de: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/mar/26/palmyra-restoration-isissyria [Consulta 1 de junio de 2019].

Shaheen, K., Swann, G. y Levett, C. (2015). Palmyra – what the world has lost. [online] The Guardian. Recuperado

de: https://www.theguardian.com/science/ng-interactive/2015/oct/05/palmyra-what-the-world-has-lost

[Consulta 18 de junio de 2019].

Shirin-international (2014). Aims & Goals | Protecting Syria Heritage. Recuperado de: http://shirininternational.org/?page_id=195 [Consulta 19 de mayo de 2019].

Shirin International (2016). Restoring Palmyra: Yes! Hastily: No!!! A motion aimed to encourage UNESCO to act as a neutral organization. Recuperado de: https://www.manuscript cultures.unihamburg.de/cuneiform/files/Palmyra%20Motion%20and%20Supports.pdf [Consulta 31 de mayo de 2019].

Simpson, J. (2016). Putin scores a PR victory in Palmyra. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-36229599 [Consulta 17 de junio de 2019].

Sinjab (2016). Assad hails Palmyra recapture from IS. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de:

https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-middle-east-35908290/syria-civil-war-assad-hails-palmyra-recapturefrom-is [Consulta 17 de junio de 2019].

Sinjab, L. (2016b). Syrian forces advance on Palmyra. [online] BBC News. Recuperado de: https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-middle-east-35904790/palmyra-syrian-forces-in-major-offensive-torecapture-city [Consulta 17 de junio de 2019].

Sketchfab. (2015). Temple of Bel - 3D model by Iconem (@iconem). Recuperado de: https://sketchfab.com/3dmodels/temple-of-bel-02c4e194c6d64a4385a30990ed9899bf [Consulta 21 de mayo de 2019].

Social Fund for Development. (2019). Social Fund for Development (SFD) - Heritage. Recuperado de:

http://www.sfd-yemen.org/category/4 [Consulta 10 de junio de 2019].

Symmes, P. (2015). Opinion | The Ancient Ruins Terror Can’t Destroy. [online] The New York Times. Recuperado de: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/24/opinion/sunday/the-ancient-ruins-terror-cantdestroy.html?searchResultPosition=50 [Consulta 18 de junio de 2019].

Taylor, A. (2015). Islamic State says ‘historical monuments’ of Palmyra are safe – except for the statues. [online] The Washington Post. Recuperado de: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2015/05/27/islamic-state-says-historical-monumentsof-palmyra-are-safe-except-for-the-statues/?utm_term=.8298f9fffebf [Consulta 18 de junio de 2019].

Taylor, A. (2016). The problem with rebuilding a Palmyra ruin destroyed by ISIS – does it simply help Assad?.

[online] The Washington Post. Recuperado de: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2016/04/20/the-problem-with-rebuilding-a-romanruin-destroyed-by-isis-does-it-simply-help-assad/?utm_term=.bdeaeb65948d [Consulta 1 de junio de 2019].

Taher, K. (2016). An insider's guide to Sana'a: 'We live in a prolonged war zone. [online] The Guardian. Recuperado de: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/sep/05/an-insiders-guide-to-sanaa-we-live-in-a-prolonged-warzone [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

Tarhoor, I. (2015). Islamic state destroys priceless statues in the ancient city of Palmyra [online] The Washington

Post. Dispponible en: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2015/07/03/islamic-statedestroys-priceless-statues-in-ancient-city-of-palmyra/?utm_term=.8f6bca0c0040 [Consulta 12 de junio de

.

The Guardian. (2015). Air strikes in Yemen damage homes. [online] The Guardian. Recuperado de:

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/apr/20/yemen-sanaa-air-strike-homes-damage-saudi-coalition

[Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

The Guardian. (2015b). 'Air strike' kills five in historic district of Sana'a. [online] The Guardian. Recuperado de:

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jun/12/air-strike-kills-five-sanaa-old-city-yemen [Consulta 11 de

junio de 2019].

The Guardian. (2015c). Yemen: over 100 dead in suicide bombings at Houthi mosques in Sana'a. [online] The

Guardian. Recuperado de: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/mar/20/yemen-suicide-bombingssanaa-mosques-shia-huthi-muslims-scores-dead [Consulta 11 de junio de 2019].

Ubelmann, Y. (2016). Palmyre dévastée, photographiée par un drone. [online] Le Monde. Recuperado de:

https://www.lemonde.fr/architecture/portfolio/2016/04/25/palmyre-devastee-photographiee-par-undrone_4908445_1809550.html [Consulta 20 de junio de 2019].

UK Blue Shield. (2015). The Heritage of Palmyra – UK Blue Shield. Recuperado de:

http://ukblueshield.org.uk/events/previous-events/public-lecture-the-heritage-of-palmyra/ [Consulta 23 de

mayo de 2019].

UK Blue Shield. (2016). Protecting, Preserving, and Presenting the Cultural Heritage of the Near East to the Public – UK Blue Shield. Recuperado de: http://ukblueshield.org.uk/events/previous-events/protecting-preservingand-presenting-the-cultural-heritage-of-the-near-east-to-the-public [Consulta 10 de junio de 2019].

UK Blue Shield. (2019). Previous events – UK Blue Shield. Recuperado de: http://ukblueshield.org.uk/events/previous-events/ [Consulta 23 de mayo de 2019].

UNESCO (1970). Protection of cultural property in case of armed conflict: information on the implementation of the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in Case of Armed Conflict. Paris: Unesco.

UNESCO (2005) Basic texts of the 1972 World Heritage Convention. Paris:Unesco.

UNESCO (2014). Syria Updated Road Map (Berlin recommendations). [ebook] Recuperado de:

http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1505 [Consulta 4 de junio de 2019].

UNESCO (2014b). The Emergency Safeguarding of the Syrian Cultural Heritage project. Recuperado de:

https://en.unesco.org/syrian-observatory/emergency-safeguarding-syrian-cultural-heritage-project [Consulta

de junio de 2019].

UNESCO (2015). Decision : 39 COM 7A.32 Site of Palmyra (Syrian Arab Republic) (C 23). Recuperado de:

https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/6248 [Consulta 3 de junio de 2019].

UNESCO (2015b). Decision : 39 COM 7A.36 General Decision on the World Heritage properties of the Syrian Arab

Republic. Recuperado de: https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/6252 [Consulta 3 de junio de 2019].

UNESCO (2015c). Decision - 39 COM 8C.1. Recuperado de: https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/6403 [Consulta 11 de abril de 2019].

UNESCO (2015d). Director-General Irina Bokova firmly condemns the destruction of Palmyra's ancient temple of

Baalshamin, Syria. Recuperado de: https://en.unesco.org/news/director-general-irina-bokova-firmlycondemns-destruction-palmyra-s-ancient-temple-baalshamin [Consulta 3 de junio de 2019].

UNESCO (2015e). Emergency Action Plan for the Safeguarding of Yemen’s Cultural Heritage announced.

Recuperado de: https://en.unesco.org/news/emergency-action-plan-safeguarding-yemen-s-cultural-heritageannounced [Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

UNESCO (2015g). The Director General of UNESCO condemns the destruction of historic buildings in the Old City

of Sana’a, Yemen. Recuperado de: http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1295 [Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

UNESCO (2015h). UNESCO Director-General calls on all parties to protect Yemen’s cultural heritage. Recuperado

de: http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1278/ [Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

UNESCO (2015i). UNESCO launches emergency response plan to safeguard Yemen cultural heritage. Recuperado

de: http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1279/ [Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

UNESCO (2015j). UNESCO World Heritage Centre - Decision - 39 COM 8C.1 Update of the List of the World

Heritage in Danger. Recuperado de: https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/6403 [Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

UNESCO (2015k). UNESCO World Heritage Centre - State of Conservation (SOC 2015) Site of Palmyra (Syrian

Arab Republic). Recuperado de: https://whc.unesco.org/en/soc/3217 [Consulta 21 de mayo de 2019].

UNESCO (2016). General Decision on the World Heritage properties of the Syrian Arab Republic. Recuperado de:

https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/6637 [Consulta 3 de junio de 2019].

UNESCO (2016b). Report of the Decisions adopted during the 40th session of the World Heritage Committee

(Istanbul/UNESCO, 2016). Recuperado de: http://whc.unesco.org/archive/2016/whc16-40com-19-en.pdf

[Consulta 31 de mayo de 2019].

UNESCO (2016d) State of Conservation (SOC 2016) Site of Palmyra (Syrian Arab Republic). Recuperado de:

https://whc.unesco.org/en/soc/3350 [Consulta 21 de mayo de 2019].

UNESCO (2016e). UNESCO World Heritage Centre - Decision - 40 COM 7A.24. Recuperado de:

https://whc.unesco.org/en/decisions/6639 [Consulta 10 de junio de 2019].

UNESCO (2016f). With President Francois Hollande, UNESCO Director-General inaugurates the exhibition "Eternal

Sites" at the Grand Palais. Recuperado de: https://whc.unesco.org/en/news/1608 [Consulta 4 de junio de

.

UNESCO (2017). UNESCO Director-General condemns destruction of the Tetrapylon and severe damage to the

Theatre in Palmyra, a UNESCO World Heritage site. Recuperado de: https://en.unesco.org/news/unescodirector-general-condemns-destruction-tetrapylon-and-severe-damage-theatre-palmyra [Consulta15 de abril

de 2019].

UNESCO (2019). Old City of Sana'a Reporting Trend. Recuperado de:

https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/385/indicators/#indicator [Consulta 11 de abril de 2019].

UNESCO (n.d.). Centro del Patrimonio Mundial - Ciudad vieja de Sana ‘a. Recuperado de:

https://whc.unesco.org/es/list/385 [Consulta 11 de abril de 2019].

UNITAR (2014) Satellite-based Damage Assessment to Cultural Heritage Sites in Syria. Cultural Heritage Sites

Assesment. [online] Geneva: UNESCO

UNITAR (2015). Damage Assessment of Sana'a city, Sana'a governorate, Yemen. Recuperado de:

https://unitar.org/maps/map/2220 [Consulta 9 de junio de 2019].

UNITAR (2016). Satellite-Based Damage Assessment of Cultural Heritage Sites 2015 Summary Report of Iraq,

Nepal, Syria & Yemen. Cultural Heritage Sites Assesment. [online] Geneva: UNESCO

UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (2016). Unanimously Adopting Resolution 2199 (2015), Security

Council Condemns Trade with Al-Qaida Associated Groups, Threatens Further Targeted Sanctions.

Recuperado de: https://www.un.org/press/en/2015/sc11775.doc.htm [Consulta 3 de junio de 2019].

US Department of Sate (2011). US Department of State, Country Report on Human Rights Practices of States for 2011 – Yemen, Executive Summary. Country Report on Human Rights Practices [online] Washington: US

Department of Sate.

Vanderbilt University. (2016). Syria Widowed: Remembering Palmyra. Recuperado de: https://as.vanderbilt.edu/historyart/syriawidowed.php [Consulta 22 de mayo de 2019].

washingtonpost.com. (2015). Islamic State destroys treasured temple in Palmyra. [online] Recuperado de:

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/morning-mix/wp/2015/08/24/islamic-state-destroys-treasuredtemple-in-palmyra/?utm_term=.2b25df39d8a1 [Consulta 19 de junio de 2019].

washingtonpost.com. (2015b). New satellite images of Yemen before the airstrikes. [online] Washington Post.

Recuperado de:https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2015/04/06/bombing-destruction-atyemens-main-airport-as-seen-from-space/?utm_term=.f68a59c9f820 [Consulta 12 de junio de 2019].

washingtonpost.com. (2015c). Palmyra’s Temple of Bel withstood 2,000 years of war and invasions — until the

Islamic State. [online] Washington Post. Recuperado de: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2015/09/01/palmyras-temple-of-bel-withstood-2000-

years-of-war-and-invasions-until-the-islamic-state/ [Consulta 19 de junio de 2019].

washingtonpost.com. (2016). Islamic State Reenter ancient city of Palmyra. [online] Washington Post. Recuperado de: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle_east/isis-is-back-in-the-ancient-syrian-city-ofpalmyra/2016/12/10/d60523b3-21c5-4db7-883c-6f89305c1b25_story.html?utm_term=.58d2e89987a0

[Consulta 19 de junio de 2019].

washingtonpost.com. (2016b). Syrian troops pulled out of the ancient city of Palmyra. [online] Washington Post.

Recuperado de: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/battle-rages-forpalmyra-as-islamic-state-is-poised-to-retake-control/2016/12/11/396552ea-bf9a-11e6-afd9- f038f753dc29_story.html?utm_term=.943633f0444d [Consulta 19 de junio de 2019].

washingtonpost.com. (2016c). Why is the world so quiet?’ Yemen suffers its own cruel losses, far from Aleppo.

[online] Washington Post. Recuperado de: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2015/04/06/bombing-destruction-at-yemens-mainairport-as-seen-from-space/?utm_term=.f68a59c9f820 [Consulta 12 de junio de 2019].

World Monuments Fund. (2015). Heritage and Conflict: Syria’s Battle to protect it’s past – World Monuments Fund. [online] Recuperado de: https://wmf.org.uk/events/heritage-and-conflict-syrias-battle-to-protect-its-past/

[Consulta 23 de mayo de 2019]

Creative Commons License
Esta obra está bajo licencia internacional Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0.

Derechos de autor 2020 Análisis Jurídico - Político

Detalle de visitas

PDF: 32
Resumen: 83