Amniocentesis precoz y biopsia de vellosidad corial. Pérdidas fetales y anomalías congénitas en un grupo de gestantes brasileñas

Luz Mery Bernal, María Consuelo Bernal, Thomaz Gollop

Resumen


En el Instituto de Medicina Fetal y Genética Humana de São Paulo se ofrecen, a las gestantes que tienen un riesgo aumentado para anomalías cromosómicas, diferentes técnicas, entre ellas, la Biopsia de Vellosidad Corial Transabdominal (BVCTA) y la Amniocentesis Precoz (AP). El objetivo del presente estudio es realizar una comparación de la frecuencia de pérdidas fetales y anomalías congénitas presentadas en cada uno de los procedimientos, ambos realizados por los mismos operadores, en la misma edad gestacional (12-14 6/7 semanas) y bajo un abordaje transabdominal. Fueron analizadas retrospectivamente 432 AP y 418 BVCTA. Todos los procedimientos de colecta fueron monitorizados por ultrasonografía. La frecuencia de pérdidas fetales espontáneas fue del 4,9 % en AP y de 5,3 % en BVCTA, una diferencia no significativa. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los dos procedimientos al comparar las frecuencias de pérdidas en cada semana de gestación. Sangrado y pérdida de líquido amniótico fueron más frecuentes en AP que en la BVCTA. Esa diferencia fue significativa en el caso de la pérdida de líquido amniótico. En algunos
casos este hallazgo se relacionó con pérdida fetal. La incidencia de prematuridad y bajo peso al nacimiento no difirió significativamente entre los dos procedimientos. La mayor frecuencia de problemas respiratorios registrada en AP no fue significativa en comparación con BVCTA. No se observó diferencia significativa en la incidencia de anomalías músculo-esqueléticas. La amniocentesis después de catorce semanas presenta un bajo riesgo de pérdida fetal o anomalías congénitas. La BVCTA, debe ser realizada alrededor de la semana doce de gestación.


Palabras clave


amniocentesis precoz; biopsia de vellosidad corial; pérdida fetal; anomalías congénitas.

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22490/24629448.2689

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